Wednesday, May 20, 2020
In his 1963 Ã¢â¬Å"I Have a DreamÃ¢â¬ speechÃ¢â¬ the Rev. Martin Luther King Jr. longed for the day when Ã¢â¬Å"little black boys and black girls will be able to join hands with little white boys and white girls as sisters and brothers.Ã¢â¬ While in 21st century America, KingÃ¢â¬â¢s dream is certainly possible, more often than not black children and white children remain strangers thanks to de facto segregation in the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s schools and neighborhoods. Even in diverse communities, however, children of color and white children tend not to be close friends. WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s responsible for this trend? Studies reveal that children internalize societyÃ¢â¬â¢s views on race relations, which has largely given them the idea that itÃ¢â¬â¢s best for people to Ã¢â¬Å"stick to their own kind.Ã¢â¬ The older children get, the more likely they are not to socialize closely with peers of a different race. This paints a relatively bleak picture for the future of race relations, but the good news is that by the time youth reach college they arenÃ¢â¬â¢t as quick to rule out people as friends on the basis of race. Why Interracial Friendships Are Important Cross-race friendships have a number of benefits for children, according to a study on the subject published in the Journal of Research on Childhood Education in 2011. Ã¢â¬Å"Researchers find that children who hold interracial friendships tend to have high levels of social competence and self-esteem,Ã¢â¬ according to study lead Cinzia Pica-Smith. Ã¢â¬Å"They are also socially skilled and tend to have more positive attitudes about racial differences than their peers who do not have interracial friendships. Despite the benefits of interracial friendships, several studies have shown that even young children are more inclined to have intra-racial friendships than interracial ones and that cross-race friendships decrease as children age. Ã¢â¬Å"ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Perceptions of Interethnic and Interracial Friendships in a Multiethnic School Context,Ã¢â¬ Pica-SmithÃ¢â¬â¢s study of 103 childrenÃ¢â¬âincluding one group of kindergartners and first graders and another of fourth- and fifth-gradersÃ¢â¬âfound that younger children do have a more positive outlook on inter-group friendships than their older peers. In addition, children of color favor cross-racial friendships more than whites do, and girls do more than boys. Due to the positive impact cross-racial friendships have on race relations, Pica-Smith encourages educators to foster such friendships among the children in their classrooms. Kids on Race CNNÃ¢â¬â¢s report Ã¢â¬Å"Kids on Race: The Hidden PictureÃ¢â¬ made it clear that some children hesitate to form cross-race friendships because theyÃ¢â¬â¢ve picked up cues from society that Ã¢â¬Å"birds of a feather flock together.Ã¢â¬ Released in March 2012, the online report focused on the friendship patterns of 145 African-American and Caucasian children. One group of study subjects fell between the ages of 6 and 7 years old and a second group fell between the ages of 13 and 14 years old. When shown pictures of a black child and a white child together and asked if the pair could be friends, 49 percent of young children said they could be while just 35 percent of teens said the same. Moreover, young African-American children were far more likely than either young white children or white teens to believe that friendship between the youths in the picture was possible. Black teens, however, were just four percent more likely than white teens to think cross-race friendship between the youths in the picture was possible. This indicates that skepticism about cross-race friendships rises with age. Also of note is that white youths in majority black schools were more likely than whites in majority white schools to view cross-race friendship as possible. Sixty percent of the former youths viewed interracial friendships favorably compared to just 24 percent of the latter. Diversity Doesnt Always Result in Interracial Friendships Attending a large, diverse school doesnt mean that children will be more likely to form cross-race friendships. A University of Michigan study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences journal in 2013 found that race is a bigger factor in larger (and typically more diverse) communities. The larger the school, the more racial segregation there is, says sociologist Yu Xie, one of the studys authors. Data on 4,745 students in grades 7-12 during the 1994-95 school year was collected for the study. Xie explained that in smaller communities the number of potential friends is limited, making it more difficult for students to find a person who has the traits they want in a friend and shares their racial background as well. In larger schools, however, its easier to find someone who will meet other criteria for a friend plus be of the same race, Xie says. Race plays a bigger role in a larger community because you can satisfy other criteria, but in a smaller school other factors dominate the decision who is your friend. Interracial Friendships in College While several reports indicate that interracial friendships wane with age, a study published in 2010 in the American Journal of Sociology found that first-year college students Ã¢â¬Å"are more likely to make friends with peers they share a dorm room or major with than they are to befriend those from similar racial backgrounds,Ã¢â¬ the Houston Chronicle reported. Researchers from Harvard University and the University of California at Los Angeles tracked the Facebook profiles of 1,640 students at an unnamed university to determine how they picked friends. The study suggested students are more likely to become friends with peers they see often, peers from the same state or peers who attended similar types of high schools than they were to become friends with peers who simply shared their same cultural background. Ã¢â¬Å"Race is important in the end,Ã¢â¬ explained Kevin Lewis, one of the studyÃ¢â¬â¢s authors, Ã¢â¬Å"but itÃ¢â¬â¢s nowhere near as important as we thought.Ã¢â¬
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
How do people perceive value of objects? As a designer, how can I create a system of making emotional value? How can I evoke peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s emotional responses out of objects? Summary of reflective journals I am always interested in relationships between human and objects, especially psychological relationship. Why memento is thought so precious? Would people see same value in between their favorite watch they have keep using for many years and same products that is in the shop? Through making and researching, I would like to discover how people value objects. I would like to design products that can be used and cherished for long term. So as to that, I think it is worth to consider and research aspects of psychological way of valuingÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦In Unit2 I focused to choose right materials to make amulets and to decide outcome for this project. As I realized that a creation of emotional attachment acts important role in order to create value into object, I decided to make bespoke amulets and its kit so as audiences to be able to get involve its process. Sometimes people make amulets by them selves wishing good luck. I thought it would be interesting that I make amulet and see how people perceive them. According to Donald. A. Norman, who is a cognitive scientist, humanÃ¢â¬â¢s emotions strongly influence how people associate with objects. Strong narrative induces your emotion. The emotional attachment makes things special, valuable. How those narratives of objects speak to you and induce your emotion positively defines part of the value. In the research paper I researched Ã¢â¬ËHow contemporary designers perceive emotional values and giving the values to their productsÃ¢â¬â¢. What I reckoned out of the reseach was that designer have to care about the story behind the making process. Purchasing those objects is that people are somehow investing onto the designerÃ¢â¬â¢s imaginary world. Objects can became precious not only because its material, but because of its process, extraordinary skill or unique skills, and the time are invested to create. Emotional attachment is a key word. This is what I found out that in order to produce emotional
Question: Discuss about theEffective Methods to Determine Stress Intensity. Answer: In the study of metal cracking, one of the measures used in quantifying parameters and predicting the growth of cracks is the stress intensity factor (SIF). This is a factor that indicates the state of stress of a metal at the tip of the crack (Ka?ianauskas, Zenon, Ã ½arnovskij, Stupak, 2005). SIF analysis is necessary when understanding the behaviour of loaded metal components of structures and their ultimate failure stresses and both 2D and 3D methods are available for carrying out the analysis. SIF Analysis is done by use of the Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanisms theory which is provided for cracks on a plane surface. The theory was first introduced by Westergaard in 1939 though later improved by Irwin in 1957. Using this theory, he developed the equation below: Where: a = length of the crack; = stress function for the stress field. Using this theory, it is possible to model three different surface conditions for tensile stressing, Modes I-III, that represent tension, in-planar shear and anti-planar shear respectively (Zhu Leis, 2014). For 2D analysis, the analysis is done on the plane where the x dimension is the direction of the crack while the y dimension is the crack height in a space considered an infinite length of the material. The thickness of this body and the shape of crack opening are not considered. The 3D analysis is more preferred however as cracks usually occur along this plane. The z dimension here is the direction of curve opening and it gives the curve thickness. Finite and boundary element methods are used to analyse cracks on a 3D surface (Gozin Aghaie-Khafri, 2012). References: Gozin, M., Aghaie-Khafri, M. (2012). 2D and 3D finite element analysis of crack growth under compressive residual stress field. International Journal of Solids and Structures, 49(23), 3316-3322. Retrieved from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0020768312002995 Ka?ianauskas, R., Zenon, M., Ã ½arnovskij, V., Stupak, E. (2005). Three-dimensional Correction of the Stress Intensity Factor for Plate with a Notch. International Journal of Fracture, 136(1), 75-98. Zhu, X.-K., Leis, B. (2014). Effective Methods to Determine Stress Intensity Factors for 2D and 3D Cracks. Proceedings of the Biennial International Pipeline Conference (p. 2). IPC.
Thursday, April 23, 2020
Madonna Madonna Madonna was born on August 16, 1958, in the city of Bay City, located in the state of Michigan. Her real birth name is Madonna Louise Ciccone. However, most people know her as simply Madonna. She is known as a controversial singer, actress, dancer, songwriter, and has become one of America's biggest and well-known stars in the late 1980s. Madonna's assertive behavior, outspoken personality, and aggressive acts of sexuality, along with her great efforts to push back the borders of the acceptable, have brought her tremendous commercial success in America and abroad. She has achieved the reputation as a forefront performer and entertainer. Before Madonna began her superstar career, she attended school at the University of Michigan. Before she even attended college, she was already well talented in the field of dance. She was so good that she won a dance college scholarship in high school. This was the main reason she continued onto college. In the beginning of her college education, she enjoyed going to school on a daily basis. In addition, she enjoyed learning and meeting new friends. However, she began to get bored with her college education and her stay in college was brief. Within the next two years she dropped out of the University of Michigan and decided to pursue a career elsewhere. She knew that she wanted to either continue in the field of dance or somewhere in the music industry. She believed that she had greater opportunities in these careers in a large, diversified metropolitan city like New York City. Once in New York City, she joined a band and began writing musical notes, lyrics, and songs. This was the start of her music career. However, she still wanted to pursue her dance career. She always had two career objectives in mind and believed she would definitely achieve one or both of them. She joined Alvin Alley Theater's third company group. She danced with them for a short time period, however, she felt she could do better by focusing her main efforts and ideas in the popular music and film industry. Her first debut album was called Borderline. In addition to the album she also produced a short musical video to accompany the album. Her music and video were featured on MTV, a music television channel found on cable television. After heavy airplay of her music video on the MTV cable channel, her album became very well known. Her first music video for MTV reached the top of the music video list. The album reached the top tin on the charts in the year of 1984. Madonna's subsequent videos grew increasingly more elaborate and sophisticated. Most of the videos went to the top of the charts, which resulted in her drawing more and more attention, which in turn carried over to her later music. Musical hits such as the songs Like a Virgin, Angel, Dress You Up, Pretender, Over and Over, Stay, Shoo-bee-doo, and Material Girl, from her album titled Madonna, Like A Virgin, in 1984 stayed as the number one album for about six weeks. As her superstar status grew and became more and more assured, Madonna became more willing to express her views on different controversial issues. Her music song, Papa Don't Preach, which was released in the year 1986, dealt with the controversial issue of teenage pregnancy. Her song, Like a Prayer, which was released in the year 1989, treated the idea of spirituality in a questionable way. Additionally, her song, Justify My Love, made in 1990 was accompanied by a video deemed too sexually explicit to be shown on the MTV channel. Madonna has broken several popular music sales records. Her song, Vogue, released in 1990, became one of the top selling singles ever produced. The Immaculate Collection, including all previously released songs like Holiday, Lucky Star, Borderline, Like A Virgin, Material Girl, Crazy For You, Into The Groove, Live To Tell, Papa Don't Preach, Open Your Heart, La Isla Bonita, Like A Prayer, Express Yourself, Cherish, Vogue, Justify My Love, and Rescue Me, was produced in the following year and was only the second greatest hits album to make the top ten list. Furthermore, her album Erotica Madonna, including songs like Erotica, Fever, Bye Bye Baby, Deeper and Deeper, Bad
Tuesday, March 17, 2020
Workplace Deviance Essays Workplace Deviance Paper Workplace Deviance Paper Is workplace deviance a fact of life for companies, or can it be mitigated? Explain. A: Workplace deviance is unethical behavior that violates organizational norms about right and wrong. It can be categorized by how deviant the behavior is, from minor to serious and by the target of the deviant behavior, either the organization or particular people in the workplace. Workplace deviance does happen in companies but it can all be reduced, making new rules for the company can red cue the workplace device if employees dont follow rules they will be fired, it goes for ever employee. Every problem that goes on in the company should be addressed immediately, if its a serious problem it will be employee will be fired and for minor warning for the employee, if problem keeps happening after being told, they will no longer work for the company. 2. If you cant hire entire ethical employees, can you teach employees to act more ethically than they might be inclined? How? A: Yes, If you have the trust and proper patients to each the employees, informing employees of any negative situations happens there will be consequences. . Would you be willing to pay more for products made by socially responsible companies? How much more? A: Yes, I would be willing to pay more for produces made by a socially responsible company. I would pay only so much more, I wouldnt pay double the amount but I would spend the extra amount of money. I could be flexible with the price. 4. What influences ethical decision making? A: Values which are deeply held, constantly beliefs about what is god and eight. Mortality which is behaviors and beliefs on what is good and rights. Ethics which are moral phosphor, reasoning. Law which is reflects minimum ethics and enforced by state and Moral orientation which is your consistent basis for making moral and ethical decisions. 5. Outline a basic model for ethical decision making.
Sunday, March 1, 2020
Fish Weir - Ancient Fishing Tool of Hunter-Gatherers A fish weir or fish trap is a human-made structure built of stone, reeds, or wooden posts placed within the channel of a stream or at the edge of a tidal lagoon intended to capture fish as they swim along with the current. Fish traps are part of many small-scale fisheries around the world today, supporting subsistence farmers and sustaining people during difficult periods. When they are built and maintained following traditional ecological methodologies, they are secure ways for people to support their families. However, local management ethics have been undermined by colonial governments. For example, in the 19th century, British Columbias government passed laws to prohibit fisheries established by First Nations people. A revitalization effort is underway. Some evidence of their ancient and continuing use is found in the wide variety of names still used for fish weirs: fish impoundment, tidal weir, fishtrap or fish-trap, weir, yair, coret, gorad, kiddle, visvywer, fyshe herdes, and passive trapping. Types of Fish Weirs Regional differences are apparent in construction techniques or materials used, species harvested, and of course terminology, but the basic format and theory is the same world-wide. Fish weirs vary in size from a small temporary brush frameworks to extensive complexes of stone walls and channels. Fish traps on rivers or streams are circular, wedge-shaped, or ovoid rings of posts or reeds, with an upstream opening. The posts are often connected by basketry netting or wattle fences: the fish swim in and are trapped within the circle or upstream of the current. Tidal fish traps are typically solid low walls of boulders or blocks built across gullies: the fish swim across the top of the wall at spring high tides, and as the water recedes with the tide, they are trapped behind it. These types of fish weirs are often considered a form of fish farming (sometimes called aquaculture), since the fish can live in the trap for a period until they are harvested. Often, according to ethnographic research, the fish weir is regularly dismantled at the beginning of the spawning season, so fish may freely find mates. Invention and Innovation The earliest fish weirs known were made by complex hunter-gatherers all over the world during the Mesolithic of Europe, the Archaic period in North America, the Jomon in Asia, and other similarly dated hunter-gatherer cultures around the world. Fish traps were used well into the historic period by many groups of hunter-gatherers, and in fact still are, and ethnographic information about historic fish weir use has been gathered from North America, Australia, and South Africa. Historical data has also been collected from medieval period fish weir use in the UK and Ireland. What weve learned from these studies gives us information about the methods of fish trapping, but also about the importance of fish to hunter-gatherer societies and at least a glimmer of light into traditional ways of life. Dating Fishtraps Fish weirs are difficult to date, in part some of them were used for decades or centuries and were dismantled and rebuilt in the same locations. The best dates come from radiocarbon assays on wooden stakes or basketry which were used to construct the trap, which only dates the latest rebuild. If a fish trap was completely dismantled, the likelihood that it left evidence is very slim. Fishbone assemblages from adjacent middens have been used as a proxy for the use of a fish weir. Organic sediments such as pollen or charcoal in the bottoms of traps have also been used. Other methods used by scholars include identifying local environmental changes such as changing sea level or the formation of sandbars that would impact the weirs use. Recent Studies The earliest known fish traps to date are from Mesolithic sites in marine and freshwater locations in the Netherlands and Denmark, dated to between 8,000 and 7,000 years ago. In 2012, scholars reported new dates on the Zamostje 2 weirs near Moscow, Russia, of more than 7,500 years ago. Neolithic and Bronze Age wooden structures are known at Wooton-Quarr on the Isle of Wight and along the shores of the Severn estuary in Wales. The Band e-Dukhtar irrigation works of the Achaemenid dynasty of the Persian Empire, which includes a stone weir, dates between 500Ã¢â¬â330 BCE. Muldoons Trap Complex, a stone-walled fish trap at Lake Condah in western Victoria, Australia, was constructed 6600 calendar years ago (cal BP) by removing basalt bedrock to create a bifurcated channel. Excavated by Monash University and the local Gundijmara Aboriginal community, Muldoons is an eel-trapping facility, one of many located near Lake Condah. It has a complex of at least 350 meters of constructed channels running alongside an ancient lava flow corridor. It was used as recently as the 19th century to trap fish and eels, but excavations reported in 2012 included AMS radiocarbon dates of 6570Ã¢â¬â6620 cal BP. The earliest weirs in Japan are currently associated with the transition from hunting and gathering to farming, generally at the end of the Jomon period (ca. 2000Ã¢â¬â1000 BC). In southern Africa, stone-walled fishtraps (called visvywers) are known but not direct-dated as of yet. Rock art paintings and fish bone assemblages from marine sites there suggest dates between 6000 and 1700 BP. Fish weirs have also been recorded in several locations in North America. The oldest appears to be the Sebasticook Fish Weir in central Maine, where a stake returned a radiocarbon date of 5080 RCYPB (5770 cal BP). Glenrose Cannery at the mouth of the Fraser River in British Columbia dates to about 4000Ã¢â¬â4500 RCYBP (4500-5280 cal BP). Fish weirs in southeastern Alaska date to ca. 3,000 years ago. A Few Archaeological Fish Weirs Asia:Ã Asahi (Japan), Kajiko (Japan)Australia:Ã Muldoons Trap Complex (Victoria), Ngarrindjeri (South Australia)Middle East/West Asia:Ã HibabiyaÃ (Jordan),Ã Band-e DukhtarÃ (Turkey)North America:Ã Sebasticook (Maine),Ã Boylston Street Fish WeirÃ (Massachusetts), Glenrose Cannery (British Columbia), Big Bear (Washington), Fair Lawn-Paterson Fish Weir (New Jersey)UK:Ã Gorad-y-Gyt (Wales), Wooton-Quarry (Isle of Wight), Blackwater estuary weirs (Essex), Ashlett Creek (Hampshire)dRussia:Ã Zamostje 2 The Future of Fish Trapping Some government-sponsored programs have been funded to blend traditional fish weir knowledge from indigenous peoples with scientific research. The purpose of these efforts is to make fish weir construction safe and productive while maintaining ecological balances and keeping the costs and materials within the range of families and communities, especially in the face of climate change. One such recent study is described by Atlas and colleagues, on weir construction for the exploitation of sockeye salmon in British Columbia. That combined work by members of the Heiltsuk Nation and Simon Fraser University to rebuild weirs on the Koeye River, and establish fish population monitoring. A STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) education program has been developed (Kern and colleagues) to engage students in the construction of fish weirs, the Fish Weir Engineering Challenge. Sources Atlas, William I., et al. Ancient Fish Weir Technology for Modern Stewardship: Lessons from Community-Based Salmon Monitoring. Ecosystem Health and Sustainability 3.6 (2017): 1341284. Print.Cooper, John P., et al. A Saxon Fish Weir and Undated Fish Trap Frames near Ashlett Creek, Hampshire, Uk: Static Structures on a Dynamic Foreshore. Journal of Maritime Archaeology 12.1 (2017): 33Ã¢â¬â69. Print.Jeffery, Bill. Reviving Community Spirit: Furthering the Sustainable, Historical and Economic Role of Fish Weirs and Traps. Journal of Maritime Archaeology 8.1 (2013): 29Ã¢â¬â57. Print.Kennedy, David. Recovering the Past from above Hibabiya - an Early Islamic Village in the Jordanian Desert? Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy 22.2 (2011): 253Ã¢â¬â60. Print.Kern, Anne, et al. The Fish Weir: A Culturally Relevant Stem Activity. Science Scope 30.9 (2015): 45Ã¢â¬â52. Print.LangouÃ «t, LoÃ ¯c, and Marie-Yvane Daire. Ancient Maritime Fish-Traps of Brittany (France): A Reappraisal of the Relationship between Human and Coastal Environment During the Holocene. Journal of Maritime Archaeology 4.2 (2009): 131Ã¢â¬â48. Print. Losey, Robert. Animism as a Means of Exploring Archaeological Fishing Structures on Willapa Bay, Washington, USA. Cambridge Archaeological Journal 20.01 (2010): 17Ã¢â¬â32. Print.McNiven, Ian J., et al. Dating Aboriginal Stone-Walled Fishtraps at Lake Condah, Southeast Australia. Journal of Archaeological Science 39.2 (2012): 268Ã¢â¬â86. Print.OSullivan, Aidan. Place, Memory and Identity among Estuarine Fishing Communities: Interpreting the Archaeology of Early Medieval Fish Weirs. World Archaeology 35.3 (2003): 449Ã¢â¬â68. Print.Ross, Peter J. Ngarrindjeri Fish Traps of the Lower Murray Lakes and Northern Coorong Estuary, South Australia. MSc, Maritime Archaeology. Flinders University of South Australia, 2009. Print.Saha, Ratan K., and Dilip Nath. Indigenous Technical Knowledge (Itk) of Fish Farmers at Dhalai District of Tripura, Ne India. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge 12.1 (2013): 80Ã¢â¬â84. Print.Takahashi, Ryuzaburou. Symbiotic Relations between Paddy-Field R ice Cultivators and Hunter-Gatherer-Fishers in Japanese Prehistory: Archaeological Considerations of the Transition from the Jomon Age to the Yayoi Age. Senri Ethnological Studies. Eds. Ikeya, K., H. Ogawa and P. Mitchell. Vol. 732009. 71Ã¢â¬â98. Print.
Thursday, February 13, 2020
Primary Nursing - Essay Example In the past, it would be workable to have health experts, for example, doctors admit patients to health institutions as a favor to the families of the patient (Manthey, 2002). In addition, it would be less complicated to find people with little or no nursing qualification leading the nursing field in a health institution. Ever since 1960, this situation has dramatically revolutionized since that period. The level of education is augmenting, the workforce is increasing in diversity, and the nursing profession is rising progressively. During the 1960 period, influential nurses, for example, Marie Manthey comprehended that the care nurses offered in health institutions needed to be concentrate on family and patient centered model instead of focusing on a task oriented approach (Boltz, 2011). Moreover, Marie Manthey also proposed that this model required being the foremost strategy for providing nursing care because it supported relationship establishment with families and patients that could promote better and extra specialized care strategies in addition to favorable care results (Manthey, 2002). This paper will look at Primary nursing today in comparison to 1960. The paper will evaluate literature regarding this subject, its influence to nursing leadership, and a number of recommendations. The advancement toward primary nursing a strategy of health care service delivery was initiated in the 60s and has been progressing since that period. In addition, this advancement has been recapped in a number of documents created during this time. The concept of primary nursing was largely urged on by a deficiency of medical practitioners. The foremost documented training for nurse professionals was established by a nurse, Loretta Ford, and a physician, Henry Silver, in 1965, with an aim of rectifying the ineffective distribution of heath resources, stabilizing health care costs, and enhancing the number of health care givers. Also, there was a degree of mystification about the different abilities and titles of nurses as the profession was established (Weber & Kelley, 2009). This has continued as the responsibilities and authority of the nursing practitioners have changed over time. In the 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s, there was a personal connection between patients and nurses that many old practitioners miss in the present nursing practice. Literature Review Friedberg, Hussey, and Schneider analyzed the hints of explaining primary care in their assessment of the proof with regard to its effectiveness (Friedberg, Hussey, & Schneider, 2010). They concentrated on a number of general explanations of primary care. In the foremost explanation, primary care was explained as a specialty and those offering it, for example, family physician, general internists, general pediatricians, and other generalists, were specialists (Friedberg, Hussey, & Schneider, 2010). A second explanation specified a number of health care activities; care coordination care for a large number of pr oviders, first-contact care for new health issues, long-term person-centered care, and comprehensive care for a big number of health problems, all given at a standard source of care (Friedberg, Hussey, & Schneider, 2010). The third explanation described primary care with regard to the course of the health system. The authors